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Doctors have discovered that an important knee ligament, first described in an 1879 paper, before being subsequently ignored for well over a century, is actually a very real and important body part.


Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common problem for many athletes. They are notoriously difficult to repair and the recovery is a tough and painful process that can take up to a year. Following treatment, however, many patients still complain of aches and pains and it is not at all uncommon for the joints to fail the necessary pivot-shift tests (performed so the doctors can check the success of their surgeries). Repeat injuries are also inexplicably common.


Last month, it was announced that a team of Flemish doctors appears to have finally solved this persistently vexing riddle and, in so doing, they validated a discovery made over a century ago.


Paul Segond, a 19th century French surgeon who is known for greatly aiding the development of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (as well as describing the Segond fracture), wrote of the ligament as a “pearly, fibrous band” in 1879. Segond posited that it was an additional ligament, but anatomists did not consider the initial discovery to be accurate.


After reading Segond’s paper and deciding that there may be something to it after all, the team of knee surgeons and an anatomist began investigating the possibility that Segond’s mystery ligament was, in fact, a very real part of the Human body.


The team examined the knees of 41 cadavers, finding that 40 of them actually contained Segond’s ligament, just as he’d described it a hundred years earlier.


With this (re)discovery now published and proven, the ligament has been named as the anterolateral ligament (ALL).


The anterolateral ligament joins the other jointhere most important by doctors and anatomists, such as the lateral femoral epicondyle (LFE), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), Gerdy’s tubercle (GT), popliteus tendon (PT), popliteofibular ligament (PFL), and, of course, the aforementioned anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).


Surgeons are already considering ways in which to repair ALL tears and damage, with the hopes of improving the quality of life for anyone who suffers any ligament damage to the knees. This rediscovery is likely to become a very significant one in the field of sports and athletics, across both amateur and professional playing fields.


SOURCES


Admin · 26 views · Leave a comment
19 May 2015



So, you want to know whether you should get the aPad or Apple's iPad. When it comes to features and functions, the aPad and the iPad are essentially the same. The iPad is a well-loved product with a lot of hype surrounding it. The only drawback is its hefty price range, which might be out of many people's budgets. Meanwhile, cheap android tablets are flooding the market and many people are choosing them instead of the iPad. And why not, especial when both have so many similar features and apps?


In contrast, Android 4.0 has more improvement than the previous version. We not only see the redesigned interface and many upgrades in details, but also we notice the integration of Android mobile phone and nexus 9 in the brand new Android 4.0. Of course, you can understand this as the integration of Android and this is a good news for developers and hardware producers. However, in today's mobile phone area, all the customers care about the apps more than hardware, a well-developed platform can attract more app developers. This will brings more business to them.


Over the years, food providers (restaurants and grocery stores) have developed a trend of competing with each other, in part, by increasing the serving sizes of food products. As a result, the consuming public has come to expect larger sizes and to see them as "normal". We are attracted to signs in front of the restaurants which advertise "the world's largest pancakes" and "free triple dips of ice cream with the purchase of the 14 ounce steak". While these offers may be appealing, they are killing us.


Toshibas teasing us with a video for its new, unnamed android tablet for restaurants: we can see twin cameras, HDMI, mini USB and normal USB, an SD card slot and a swappable battery. So itll probably weigh a ton. Heres hoping it doesnt suffer from the problems that plagued its predecessor, the Folio 100.


Additionally Barnes and Noble cut the prices of its restaurants first edition NOOK Wi-Fi and G Wi-Fi devices to and respectively. The price of the NOOK Color, a 7-inch, Wi-Fi-only Android tablet, will remain the same.
Admin · 68 views · Leave a comment
18 May 2015
Ham radio (so called because its operators were originally derided as being ‘hammy’ in the 19th century, when the technology first emerged) is a term that applies to any form of amateur radio broadcasting.




There are designated radio frequency spectra available solely for public use. Uses range from recreation to communication and the non-commercial exchange of ideas. ‘Hams’ take advantage of these frequencies in order to transmit any number of things


Strictly speaking, there should not be any money involved in amateur radio (hence the term ‘amateur’). Although the majority of Ham radio practitioners are actually extremely knowledgeable about radio technology (don’t let the ‘ham’ part fool you), they are not considered professionals because they do not profit from their endeavours. Conversely, commercial broadcasting involves (a lot of) money: royalties are paid, producers and performers are paid and the whole thing is ultimately a commercial exercise.


Hams use a large amount of frequency bands from all across the radio spectrum, but the majority of frequencies are to be found just above the AM band.


A lot of hams, however, use VHF FM, operating hand-held transceivers that send on one frequency and receive on another. Local radio clubs set up FM Repeaters (which borrow space from other broadcast devices such as towers and, in doing so, amplify the radio signal’s strength hundreds of times over), so that hams can communicate with each other wirelessly over a distance of hundreds of miles.


As an example of what hams get up to, here’s an excerpt from Gary Brown, of How Stuff Works.com


“Although a ham radio does broadcast in all directions, hams generally do not use their radios in a broadcast kind of way as a disk jockey would at a radio station. In normal AM or FM radio, one disk jockey transmits and thousands of people listen. Hams, on the other hand, conduct two-way conversations, often with another ham or with a group of hams in an informal roundtable. The roundtable of hams may be in the same town, county, state, country or continent or may consist of a mix of countries, depending on the frequency and the time of the day. Hams also participate in networks, often called nets, at predetermined times and frequencies to exchange third-party messages. In the case of disasters, hams exchange health and welfare information with other hams”.


To become a ham, I recommend that you join a club. You’ll need an amateur radio license, of course, but this won’t break the bank, I’m sure.


I hope that helps, Melissa.

Admin · 26 views · Leave a comment
14 May 2015
A two way radio is one that can transmit and receive. It is also called a transceiver. The two way radio definition encompasses most of the wireless or cellular systems. Portable devices which use the two way radio system are called walkie talkies or handie-talkies. The transmitter on a two way radio device is turned on by pressing a push-to-talk button. Pushing this button sets you free to start talking through the device. There is normally another person on the other end of the conversation, or a group of people who have devices which use the two way radio system.


The 2 way radio technology is one of the earliest wireless network technologies. Despite the fact that there are countless other ways of wireless communication due to innovation, the two way radio system is still viable and used by people to widen their communication range.


It is mainly used due to the following two main advantaged:


Communication is Instant


The two way radio system enables instant communication. Within a fraction of a second after pushing the push-to-talk button, you would be able to pass on your messages . This has been made possible by a quick call set-up time integrated in this technology. The reliance of organizations on the two way radio system is founded on the fact that the device enables instant communication.


Group Communication is Possible With This Technology


This is adistinct feature of the two way radio technology. The capability of this system to create a scenario where a whole group communicates even from distances apart is also called “group call”. It is very efficient in that one caller is able to convey a message to up to thousands of other users at the same time. Not one user receives his/ her message later than the others in a group call. The conveyor of the message does not need to repeat himself/ herself so that the message is heard by everyone in the group communicating. Very little radio frequency channel resources are used during the group communication, meaning that it is not a way that utilizes so much of an organization’s resources.


Benefits of a Two Way Radio System of Communication


All wireless technology systems of communication have their advantages and disadvantages. Organizations or groups have their preferences in regards to how they conduct their day-to-day businesses.


A two way radio system of communication is superior to other systems of wireless communication due to the following key reasons:


• It is suitable for people who are mobile hence are rarely together to carry out their duties and responsibilities close to each other.


• It is suitable for communicating among a group of people.


• Communication using the two way radio system is instant.




The aspect of a two way radio system of instant communication enables emergencies to be handled pretty fast. A situation that requires urgent attention can be attended to as fast as possible. A cellular phone would be a great option for communication of emergencies, just that, they take time as the person on the other end of the call has got to receive first so that the message is conveyed. The few seconds or possibly even a minute as the phone rings could create an avenue for the situation to worsen. A two way radio system only requires you to push a button and then convey the message straight-up, as long as the radio frequency channels are available. In the event of congestion on the radio frequency channels, the two way radio system is designed to overcome this and create a priority in the event of an emergency. This feature is not available to other technologies of the wireless system.


Conclusion


What Does Two Way Radio Mean, The two way radio system is very efficient and economical. Making phonecalls to more than 5 members of a particular group would be pretty expensive as compared to conveying messages through a two way radio system. It would also take time to call one member after the other, a situation that would not arise with the two way radio technology.

Admin · 64033 views · Leave a comment
09 May 2015
After doing a little research, I can now tell you (basically) everything you ever wanted to know about black boxes...


In the average commercial aircraft, you’ll find the presence of multiple (usually four) microphones in the cockpit at any given time. They are located in the pilot and co-pilot’s headsets, as well as in the cockpit itself. Not only do these microphones record conversations between the pilots and cabin crew, they also record any ambient noise (such as switches being thrown or sounds generated by technical issues). The microphones all connect to the cockpit voice recorder (CVR), a master unit that stores the last 30 minutes of sound. The tape operates on a loop, essentially erasing itself every half hour.


This device is known colloquially, but a little misleadingly, as the black box (it is usually quite brightly coloured in order to make it easier to find in the unlikely event of an accident). Another device also referred to as a black box, is the flight data recorder (FDR), which automatically records data regarding the plane’s flight path, speed and movements in the air. Although the devices are distinct from one another, the information they record goes to the same place and is used for the same purpose, thus their shared name of black box.




In recent years, manufacturers have moved away from magnetic tape-based CVRs and FDRs and towards solid state technology boxes. These improved devices store the relevant data on memory boards, which can hold up to two hours of cockpit recording and 25 hours of flight data. The solid-state devices are also sturdier than their tape-based counterparts.


Crash survivable memory units (CMSUs), are large cylinders that back up all the relevant data and are designed to withstand extreme heat, pressure and violent impact. They are typically contained within the box itself. In the more severe accidents, the CMSU is all that survives of the black box.


The black box, then, simply records all the relevant data before an accident occurs. This serves to provide engineers with an explanation for a crash, as well as providing investigators and regulators with the same information.


So there you have it, of course, a lot of information is stored in an aircraft’s black box (much more than I’ve detailed here), but as a general example, that’s what it is and how it works. Hope that helps.

Admin · 21 views · Leave a comment
06 May 2015

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